Purged beyond return? No remedy for Turkey's dismissed public sector workers
October 2018 - Amnesty International
This report by Amnesty International focused on the situation of some 130,000 people who were summarily removed from public sector jobs; underlining that these individuals did not only lost their jobs, but also completely removed from their professions in many cases, and that the dismissals led to severe impacts on their lives as well as on the lives of their family members.
Erdogan's hostage diplomacy: Western nationals in Turkish prisons
June 2018 - Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD)
This report by Foundation for Defense of Democracies examined a phenomenon that it referred to as the Turkish government's "hostage diplomacy," which was used after the 2016 failed coup. It noted the EU and US nationals that were either imprisoned in Turkey or were barred from leaving the country as well as the Western countries' response to the practice.
Weathering the storm: Defending human rights in Turkey's climate of fear
April 2018 - Amnesty International
This report by Amnesty International focused on the ways in which the rights to freedom of expression, assembly and association, to liberty and security and to fair trials were eroded as Turkey's government continued to use the state of emergency to shrink the space for dissenting and alternative views. It also described the pressures and threats encountered by human rights defenders.
Updated situation report: State of emergency in Turkey
April 2018 - Human Rights Joint Platform (İHOP)
This report by Human Rights Joint Platform provided an overview of Turkey's state of emergency period as o f March 2018, noting ongoing problems with detention and arrest procedures, conditions in prisons, closure of media outlets as well as the impacts of a cross-border Turkish military incursion into northern Syria on freedom of expression.
This report by the Human Rights Association summarised Turkey's human rights situation in 2017, listing a number of abuses including arbitrary deprivation of life, continuation of allegations of torture and ill-treatment in custody, and serious rights violations against Kurdish political groups and activists.
This report by the US Department of State noted ongoing human rights abuses in Turkey throughout the year 2017, including arbitrary deprivation of life, enforced disappearances, torture and ill-treatment, arbitrary arrests and detentions.
Report on the impact of the state of emergency on human rights in Turkey, including an update on the south-east
March 2018 - UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
This UN report detailed extensive human rights violations that occurred in Turkey throughout the year 2017, highlighting interference with the independence of the judiciary, arbitrary mass dismissals from public sector, torture and ill-treatment in custody, and violations of the freedoms of expression and movement. It expressed concern over the ineffectiveness of the state of emergency inquiry commission set up by the government to review individual complaints against state of emergency measures. The report also included an update on an earlier UN report focusing on the human rights situation in the country's predominantly Kurdish southeast.
Freedom House in its annual report of 2018 announced that it decided to move Turkey from its previous category of "partly free" down to that of "not free" as the government led by President Erdoğan increasingly encroached on the press, the judiciary, the electoral system; and his response to a failed coup attempt in July 2016 became "a sprawling witch hunt," resulting in the arrest of some 60,000 people, the closure of over 160 media outlets, and the imprisonment of over 150 journalists. Freedom House also noted a crackdown on the Kurdish politicians and on critics beyond Turkey's borders as the government "triggered a flood of Interpol red notice requests" aimed at having dissidents detained abroad.
This annual report by Human Rights Watch, which presented a overview of the global human rights situation in 2017, noted a number of concerns regarding Turkey, including the adoption of a constitutional amendment giving the executive vast powers to the detriment of human rights and rule of law, the fact that the amendment was passed through a referendum held under heavy censorship and state of emergency rule, as well as continuing problems such as mass dismissals from public service, closure of media outlets, arbitrary detentions and arrests. It further stated that the state of emergency inquiry commission, which was set up to review individual complaints, had a serious independence problem as its members were appointed by the same authorities responsible for the state of emergency practices.
December 2017 - Union of Turkish Bar Associations (TBB)
This report noted problems associated with the absence of respect for fair trial principles and the conditions in Turkish prisons. It also provides the findings of several working groups which conducted studies in the fields of sexual identity, the rights of disabled persons and freedom of expression.
Opinion on the impact of the state of emergency on freedom of association in Turkey
November 2017 - Expert Council on NGO Law (Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe)
This opinion published by the Expert Council on NGO Law noted the unconstitutional and unlawful restrictions imposed on freedom of association through decree laws in Turkey. It also expressed doubt on the independence and impartiality of the state of emergency inquiry commission established to review individual complaints, and questioned its recognition as an effective remedy.
The state of emergency one year on: Emergency rule hurts workers
July 2017 - Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DİSK)
This report by one of Turkey's leading unionist alliances, published upon the completion of the first year of Turkey's state of emergency from 2016 to 2018, studied in detail the negative impacts of the emergency rule on labour and workers' rights.
The first year of state of emergency: Democracy under the debris
July 2017 - Union for Democracy (Demokrasi için Birlik)
This report by the Union for Democracy, which was released upon the completion of the first year of Turkey's two-year-long state of emergency, dealt with the impacts of emergency rule on the country's democratic standards, separation of powers, human rights situation, civil society, academia, labor rights, women's rights, Kurdish minority, local governments and LGBTI persons.
No end in sight: Purged public sector workers denied a future in Turkey
May 2017 - Amnesty International
This report by Amnesty focused on the mass dismissals of public sector employees in Turkey during the state of emergency, examining the arbitrary nature of the dismissals as well as noting the absence of effective legal remedies for those who were targeted by the practice.
Jailing women in Turkey: Systematic campaign of persecution and fear
April 2017 - Stockholm Center for Freedom (SCF)
This report by Stockholm Center for Freedom (SCF) examined the impact of Turkey's declining human rights record on women, noting that female prisoners were being held in overcrowded facilities, that the Turkish authorities refused to address their health-related needs, and that some of them were exposed to torture and ill-treatment.
Human Rights Violations of Turkey in 2016: De Facto Authoritarian Presidential System
April 2017 - Human Rights Association (İHD)
This report by the Human Rights Association notes several abuses such as violations of the right to life, torture and ill-treatment in custody, mass displacement of people living in the predominantly Kurdish provinces, restrictions on freedom of expression, unhealthy conditions in prisons, violations of freedom of assembly and violence against women.
The State Department's yearly human rights report for Turkey for the year 2016 noted a series of human rights problems in the country, particularly in the aftermath of the July 2016 failed coup, including torture and ill-treatment in custody, enforced disappearances, arbitrary detention and arrest, violations of the judicial independence, lack of respect for fair trial principles, severe restrictions on freedom of expression and media, imprisonment of numerous journalists, closure of media outlets, criminal prosecution of criticism of government politics or officials, violations of freedom of assembly and association, blocking of websites and contents, violations of freedom of movement and violence against LGBTI persons and members of other minorities.
February 2017 - Human Rights Joint Platform (İHOP)
This fact sheet aims to present a picture of the state of emergency rule in Turkey as of February 2017, with a particular focus on the mass dismissals of public sector workers, closure of media outlets, and government-led takeover of the municipalities in the predominantly Kurdish southeast through removal of elected mayors from office and appointment of trustees to replace tham.
Is the state of emergency inquiry commission an effective remedy?
February 2017 - Kerem Altıparmak, Human Rights Joint Platform (İHOP)
This article written by one of Turkey's leading experts on human rights law, Kerem Altıparmak, explains the ways in which Turkey's state of emergency inquiry commission, established by decree law no. 685 with the aim of reviewing individual complaints regarding state of emergency measures, fails to fulfil international legal standards. Altıparmak calls on the European Court of Human Rights to deliver a judgment without waiting for the commission's work.
Human Rights Watch's annual report for the events of 2016 described several human rights violations brought on by the state of emergency practices, including mass summary dismissal of public sector employees, torture and ill-treatment in custody, detention and arrest of a number of journalists and the displacement of some 400,000 people in the country's predominantly Kurdish south-east caused by escalating violence.
Opinion on Emergency Decree Laws Nos. 667-676 Adopted Following the Failed Coup of 15 July 2016
December 2016 - Venice Commission
This opinion paper published by the Venice Commission noted that the first set of state of emergency decree laws (from 667 to 676) issued by the Turkish government and the measures taken after a failed coup in July 2016 went beyond what is permitted by the Turkish Constitution and international law, and that the Turkish government interpreted its emergency powers too extensively.
First released in December 2016, and later updated in January 2017 and in November 2017, this report by the Asylum Research Centre provided a description of the ways in which the state of emergency practices in Turkey targeted the members of the faith-based Gülen movement. The document was intended to serve as a reference in the assessment of asylum applications.
EASO Country of Origin Information Report: Turkey Country Focus
November 2016 - European Asylum Support Office (EASO)
This report, which was prepared by the European Asylum Support Office at the request of the European Parliament and the European Commission in order to serve as a reference document in asylum applications. It provides a general overview of the human rights situation in the country as of November 2016 and describes the practices of the first few months of the state of emergency.
Memorandum on the human rights implications of the measures taken under the state of emergency in Turkey
October 2016 - Nils Muiznieks, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights
This memorandum, which followed Commissioner Muiznieks' visit to Ankara between 27 and 29 September 2016, noted a number of problems in the human rights situation in Turkey after the declaration of state of emergency in July 2016. It called for an end to the abusive practices that still prevailed two and a half months after the abortive putsch.
The Failed Military Coup in Turkey & the Mass Purges
October 2016 - The Alliance for Shared Values
This report by the New York-based Alliance for Shared Values deals with the attempted coup in Turkey of July 2016 and the massive purge that followed it, describing a number of human rights violations, including torture and ill-treatment, violations of the freedom of movement, denial of access to due process and fair trial.
This report by Human Rights Watch provides a country by country analysis of the global human rights situation in 2015. Its section on Turkey details the increasing pressures on the Kurds, the decline in press freedom and the weakening of the judiciary.